Within a year of Kalkaua`s election, the treaty became a reality, although the treaty was not supported by all Hawaiians. There were concerns about American ambitions to negres the islands, and many people in the business world were willing to cede the exclusive use of Pearl Harbor to the United States in exchange for the treaty. Part of Kalakaua`s electoral platform, as “Hawaii for Hawaiians,” had been to oppose the detachment of a sovereign country. Hawaiian MP Joseph N`waha predicted the treaty would be “a treaty that gripped the nation.”  For decades, Hawaiian beetkeepers had been economically hampered by U.S. import taxes on their product and had therefore attempted to negotiate a free trade agreement. Two previous attempts to reach an agreement with the United States have failed for many reasons. The planters wanted a treaty, but the Hawaiians feared that it would lead to annexation by the United States. San Francisco sugar refineries have argued for a clause protecting their interests. The last efforts before Kalkaua`s reign died in the U.S. Senate.
 The United States has adopted an independent policy regarding Hawaii. In a treaty signed on December 23, 1826, the United States officially recognized Hawaii`s independence. The United States established diplomatic relations with Hawaii in 1853. August 1898 with the annexation of the Kingdom to the United States, after the signing by the Senate on July 6 of a joint resolution of Congress, signed the next day by U.S. President William McKinley. The climate and soil of the Hawaiian Islands were ideal for sugar cane production; Thus, an entire industry was encouraged by American trade in the Hawaiian Islands. This was particularly true after the decline of the whaling industry in the 1860s; In the 1870s, the sugarcane industry began to supplant it as one of the most profitable commercial transactions between the United States and the Hawaiian Islands. What is remarkable is that from the late 1860s until the American annexation of the Hawaiian Islands, there was a large influx of Japanese workers to the Hawaiian Islands to work the sugar cane fields. In the 1820s, the American whaling industry was established in the Hawaiian Islands, as there were more whales in the Pacific than in the Atlantic Ocean.
However, by the 1860s, the whaling industry as a whole was in decline, which meant there were fewer American ships looking for whales in the oceans and fewer needs for American whaling vessels in Hawaii.